This study was aimed at investigating the possible effects of phytoceramide (Pcer) on learning and memory and their underlying mechanisms. Phytoceramide was orally administered to ICR mice for 7 days. Memory performances were assessed using the passive avoidance test and Y-maze task. The expressions of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured with immunoblot. The incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in hippocampal regions was investigated by using immunohistochemical methods. Treatment of Pcer enhanced cognitive performances in the passive avoidance test and Y-maze task. Immunoblotting studies revealed that the phosphorylated CREB and BDNF were significantly increased on hippocampus in the Pcer-treated mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the number of immunopositive cells to BrdU was significantly increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus regions after Pcer-treatment for 7 days. These results suggest that Pcer contribute to enhancing memory and BDNF expression and it could be secondary to the elevation of neurogenesis.